Recognised Research Center Of Mysore University

Sources of Mesenchymal Stem Cells

• Bone Marrow : MSCs from bone marrow have been the most extensively characterized, in part because they are relatively easy to isolate and can be extensively expanded in culture. They can differentiate into multiple cell phenotypes, including bone, fat, cartilage, muscle, epithelium, and early neural progenitors.

• Adipose tissue : Adipose tissue has proven to serve as an abundant, accessible and rich source of adult stem cells with multipotent properties suitable for tissue engineering and regenerative medical applications. There has been increased interest in Adipose-derived Stem Cells (ASCs) for tissue engineering applications.

• Wharton’s Jelly : With around 131 million annual births worldwide give a unique opportunity to collect lifesaving Wharton’s jelly derived mesenchymal stem cells (WJ-MSC). Evidences that these cells possess therapeutic properties are constantly accumulating. Likewise, their rate of proliferation, immune privileged status, and nontumorigenic properties make them ideal for both autologous and allogeneic use in regenerative medicine applications.

• Dental Pulp : Human dental pulp represents a suitable alternative source of stem cells for the study of cell-based therapies in regenerative medicine, since it is relatively easy to obtain using low invasive procedures. Their natural function in the production of odontoblasts to create reparative dentin, support applications in dentistry in the regeneration of tooth structures.

• Extra embryonic tissues : Recently the potential of fetal stem cells derived from extra-embryonic tissues has been investigated, considering their clinical applications. The cells are readily isolated from tissues (amniotic fluid, placenta and amniotic membrane) that are normally discarded at birth, avoiding ethical concerns that plague the isolation embryonic stem cells.

• Periosteum : Periosteum is a dense layer of vascular connective tissue that envelopes most of the bones. It provides a niche for pluripotent cells and a source for molecular factors that modulate cell behaviour. Several studies reveal periosteum as a better cell source for bone regeneration. It holds promise in osteochondral repair applications due to their ease of isolation and expansion potential. Furthermore, periosteum derived pluripotent cells from elderly show performances comparable to that of cells from younger subjects.

• Pericytes : Pericytes are the contractile cells that envelop the surface of the vascular tube. They communicate with endothelial cells by direct physical contact and paracrine signaling pathways. Pericyte derived progenitor cells and stem cells are used in the development of engineered tissues and promoting tissue repair.